In ancient Iran, cities expanded around important buildings such as bazaars, mosques, government buildings, and public baths. For this reason, when we travel to the historical cities of Iran, we find many of these buildings in a complex and next to each other. The Amir Chakhmaq Complex in Yazd also follows this style and context of traditional architecture.
Amir Chakhmaq Complex is one of the important historical attractions in Yazd, which dates back to the 15th century AD. This complex consists of a square, a mosque, and a bazaar that has been developed in different historical periods.
Amir Chakhmaq Complex
This collection is a relic from the reign of Amir Chakhmaq Shami. Jalaluddin Amir Chakhmaq, who came to power in Yazd on the orders of Shahrokh Teymouri, built several works in Yazd with the help of his wife Fatemeh Khatoon. Amir Chakhmaq Square is one of these works. Amir Chakhmaq Square, as one of the most important complexes in Yazd, in different historical periods including spaces such as mosque, caravanserai, monastery, cold water well, water storage, bazaar, tomb and Tekkiye.
Today, however, due to the changes in the city of Yazd and construction of streets that took place in different periods, especially after the construction of streets that took place in the Pahlavi era, the shape of Amir Chakhmaq Square in Yazd underwent many changes. The main walls of the square were destroyed and a small square was formed. Thus, Amir Chakhmaq Mosque in Yazd was merged with the square in front of Hosseiniye.
In the following periods, after various transformations, only one part remained, and that was the southeastern body, or in other words, the main body of the Amir Chakhmaq Tekkiye. These changes are related to the Reza Shahi era and after that.
The main building of Amir Chakhmaq Square
The main wall of Amir Chakhmaq building consists of pavilions in which the main materials used are brick materials that are formed in three floors. Therefore, the shape of these floors is stepped. The architectural design of two-storey brick pavilions in four vertical rows and the main part pavilions in three floors. This part of the building is located at a higher height than other arches and is decorated with amazing tiles.
Therefore, due to its unique structure, it has been mentioned in various books by archaeologists, both internal and external, as the representative of the city of Yazd.
Minarets of Amirchakhmaq Square
Some believe that the minarets of Amir Chakhmaq in Yazd have no historical aspect. However, due to the special structure they have; In 1330, they were registered in the list of national and ancient monuments.
Another spectacular part of Amir Chakhmaq Square is the large palm tree. This palm, which is known as the palm of the Heydarians, dates back to 450 years ago and the Safavid era.
Palm-Carrying is related to the mourning ceremony of Imam Hossein in the month of Muharram, which has a special glory. In the past, during ceremonies, women would lean on existing booths and watch the ceremony from above. The ruler also watched the ceremony in the Shahneshin pavilion.
Amir Chakhmaq Mosque
Amir Chakhmaq Mosque is one of the oldest buildings in the square. This mosque is also known as the Duhok Mosque and also the New Grand Mosque. Amir Chakhmaq Mosque is in second place after Yazd Grand Mosque in terms of prestige, size, and beauty.
This ancient mosque is located in the southern part of the square and its construction was completed in 1438 AD. The mosque consists of two summer and winter naves. Each of these naves has its own characteristics. At the top of the summer nave, there is a very beautiful wind altar, and the winter nave is located at the entrance, which provides its light with marble stones.
Haji Ghanbar Bazaar
In all periods of history, the Bazaar has been the main foundation of the city. Yazd Bazaar is no exception to this rule. During the Pahlavi era, this bazaar became two separate parts due to the construction of Shah Street. Parts of the Bazaar were also completely destroyed due to these changes.
The old part of the bazaar is known as Haji Ghanbar Bazaar. This bazaar dates back to the 15th lunar century, which is part of the Amir Chakhmaq Square complex. This bazaar is one of the buildings built by Nizamuddin Haji Ghanbar Jahanshahi. During his reign, many monuments were built in this ancient city, each of which had or has unique characteristics. Among the mansions built by Haji Ghanbar, we can mention the bazaar that was used to buy and sell handicrafts and we know it today as Haji Ghanbar Bazaar. In this section, some workshops are still active, such as the pastry workshop, the dyeing workshop and the Mazari Shekargah (the place where henna leaves are ground).
Reservoirs of Amir Chakhmaq Square
The water reservoirs in the square are another part of the Amir Chakhmaq Complex in Yazd. The reservoir of the square along with the magnificent mosque of the square was built by the order of Amir Chakhmaq in the western part of the square. The reservoirs leftover from the Amir Chakhmaq Complex include the five Fatemeh Seti windbreaks and the Haji Ghanbar reservoir.
The water reservoir of five windmills of Seti Fatemeh was built in the northern part of the square during the Safavid period for the use of the people. This reservoir is currently used as a zurkhaneh. The tomb of Seti Fatemeh is also located in front of this ancient monument.
Haji Ghanbar Reservoir, which is located between Tekkiye and Haji Ghanbar Bazaar, is another historical reservoir in Amir Chakhmaq Square. This reservoir is now part of the Water Museum.